ePub Nicotine: An Old-fashioned Addiction (Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs) download
by Jack E. Henningfield
The 1988 US Surgeon General's Report titled Nicotine Addiction, is cited frequently in the literature as having established the fact that nicotine . Journal of psychoactive drugs. Nicotine: An Old-fashioned Addiction. Jack E. Henningfield, Miriam Cohen.
The 1988 US Surgeon General's Report titled Nicotine Addiction, is cited frequently in the literature as having established the fact that nicotine derived from cigarette smoke is addictive in the same sense as classic addicting drugs such as heroin and cocaine. Subjective correlates of smoking4nduced elevations of plasma betaendorphin and cortisol.
They will learn what the signs are that indicate that a friend or a family member may have a drug problem and to identify four stages leading from drug use to drug abuse.
The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs answers the questions that young people are likely to ask about drugs, as well as those they might not think to ask, but should. Topics include: what it means to be intoxicated; how drugs affect mood; why people take drugs; who takes them; when they take them; and how much they take. They will learn what happens to a drug when it enters the body. They will learn what it means to get 'hooked' and how it happens. They will learn what the signs are that indicate that a friend or a family member may have a drug problem and to identify four stages leading from drug use to drug abuse.
Items related to Nicotine: An Old-fashioned Addiction (Encyclopedia.
Jack E Henningfield Nicotine: An Old-fashioned Addiction (Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs). ISBN 13: 9780222012166. Nicotine: An Old-fashioned Addiction (Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs).
Henningfield JE (1986) Nicotine: An old-fashioned addiction. In: Snyder S (ed) The encyclopedia of psychoactive drugs. Henningfield JE, Goldberg SR (1983a) Control of behavior by intravenous nicotine injections in human subjects. Chelsea House Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar. Henningfield JE (1987) Nicotine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 19:1021–1026Google Scholar. Henningfield JE, Goldberg SR (1983b) Nicotine as a reinforcer in human subjects and laboratory animals.
All psychoactive drugs are highly fat-soluble and thus cross the blood-brain barrier readily. All sedatives have the potential for addiction and dependency. Psychoactive drugs alter synaptic transmission by altering neuro-transmitter amounts and availability or by affecting receptor activity. Common depressants include barbiturates, such as Seconal; benzodiazepines, such as Xanax and Valium (commonly called minor tranquilizers); nonbarbiturate sedatives, such as methaqualone; newer nonbenzodiazepines, such as buspirone, antihistamines, and anesthetics; and alcohol.
The Effects of Different Psychoactive Drugs. Even more common are caffeine and nicotine, which are present in coffee and cigarettes respectively. The therapeutic use of these drugs refers to their use in the field of medicine to treat a range of health problems, including the treatment of pain and various mental illnesses. Use of nicotine and caffeine can be attributed to day-to-day activities, like smoking or consumption of beverages like tea and coffee. Other strong drugs are used―abused to be precise―to produce hallucinatory effects, the so-called state of trance.
What Causes Drug Addiction? Addiction usually begins with a conscious choice to drink or use drugs. People often turn to alcohol or other drugs to avoid things that bother them. For teenagers, this may mean pressure from friends, stress at home, or problems at school. Smokers can build up a tolerance for nicotine, as shown by the fact that most smokers work up to smoking at least a pack a day by the age of 25. They also go through withdrawal when they are unable to smoke, which explains why many smokers rush to light up as soon as they leave a place where smoking is not allowed.
A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood.
A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behaviour. These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness, as entheogens for ritual or spiritual purposes, as a tool for studying or augmenting the mind, or therapeutically as medication.
Encyclopedia of Addictions. We also know that, like an old home, the architecture can break down. Kranzler - Clinical Manual of Addiction Psychopharmacology (APP, 2005). The aging process can be particularly hard on the ability of brain circuits to function at their best because positive change comes less readily as we get older. Drug use and addiction is an important subject for study, not only for those interested in human health, but for all citizens, so that we can better understand what addiction is and why it happens.
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