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by Søren Kierkegaard

ePub The concept of irony: With constant reference to Socrates download
Author:
Søren Kierkegaard
ISBN13:
978-0882548678
ISBN:
0882548670
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Publisher:
Octagon Books (1983)
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1452 kb
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4.1
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318

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates (Danish: Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates) is Søren Kierkegaard's 1841 doctoral thesis under Frederik Christian Sibbern.

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates (Danish: Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates) is Søren Kierkegaard's 1841 doctoral thesis under Frederik Christian Sibbern. This thesis is the culmination of three years of extensive study on Socrates, as seen from the view point of Xenophon, Aristophanes, and Plato. His thesis dealt with irony, and in particular, Socratic irony.

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First published Tue Dec 3, 1996; substantive revision Fri Nov 10, 2017. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (b. 1813, d. 1855) was a profound and prolific writer in the Danish golden age of intellectual and artistic activity. Sometimes Kierkegaard would publish more than one book on the same day. These simultaneous books embodied strikingly contrasting perspectives.

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates (Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates), was Soren Kierkegaard's 1841 thesis for graduation from the University of Copenhagen. V. Socrates' defense, as presented by Plato, is either spurious or is to be interpreted altogether ironically.

Books by Søren Kierkegaard. Philosophy book stubs. Either/Or - For the Elliott Smith album, see Either/Or (album).

Similar books and articles. Rorty and Kierkegaard on Irony and Moral Commitment: Philosophical and Theological Connections. The Isolated Self: Irony as Truth and Untruth in Søren Kierkegaard's on the Concept of Irony. K. Brian Söderquist - 2007 - . Irony and Shame in Socratic Ethics.

The Concept of Irony With Continual Reference to Socrates. Thus, Kierkegaard's idiosyncratic approach to content and style began early. Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates. His interest in Socrates (Plato) remained constant throughout his writing career, with special interest in the maxim "Know thyself" and the theory of recollection (knowledge acquisition). In later years, Kierkegaard would assess this work, noting with disappointment his sometime uncritical use of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

In the shorter Part Two of the dissertation, Kierkegaard compares Socratic irony with contemporary interpretations of irony.

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates (Danish: Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates) is Søren Kierkegaard's university thesis paper that he submitted in 1841 His thesis dealt with irony, and in particular, Socratic irony. In the shorter Part Two of the dissertation, Kierkegaard compares Socratic irony with contemporary interpretations of irony.

442 historical and informative pages! "Kierkegaard, like most other modern authors, had very definite ideas about reading and writing books. Bibliographic Details. Publisher: Harper & Row, New York, New York. But in his case such reflections on the activity of a writer go beyond the usual statement of literary credo, the interpretative hint, and the interested nota bene to tabulators of style. In addition, we find a constatly developing theory of communication extraordinarily aware of the reader and of a confrontation with hi. -- from the Historical Introduction. Publication Date: 1966.

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  • Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author, who was the first existentialist philosopher. He wrote many other books, including Philosophical Fragments,Fear & Trembling; The Sickness Unto Death,Concluding Unscientific Postscript,Attack upon Christendom,Either/Or,The Concept of Dread,Christian Discourses,Training in Christianity,The Point of View for My Work as an Author: A Report to History, etc.

    He wrote in the introduction to this 1841 book, "Before proceeding to the discussion of the concept of irony... it will be necessary for me to secure a dependable and authentic conception of the historical-actual, phenomenological existence of Socrates... This is absolutely necessary because it is in Socrates that the concept of irony has its inception to the world... Everyone knows that tradition has linked the word `irony' to the existence of Socrates, but it does not follow from this that everyone knows what irony is." (Pg. 47-49)

    He states, "In this regard Socrates believes he has an advantage over other men: he does not fear death, because he knows nothing about it. Now this is not only a sophism but an irony. Insofar as he emancipates mankind from the fear of death, he gives them in exchange the anxious representation of an inevitable something of which one knows nothing. Accordingly, one must be accustomed to being edified by the reassurance of residing in nothingness in order to find repose in this." (Pg. 118)

    He says, "the Idea is the limit of the dialectic. Constantly engaged in leading the phenomenon up to the Idea (the dialectical activity), the individual is thrust back, or rather, flees back into actuality. But actuality itself has no other validity than to be the constant occasion for wanting to go beyond actuality---except that this never occurs. Whereupon the individual draws these exertions of subjectivity back into himself, terminated them in himself in personal satisfaction. Such is the standpoint of irony." (Pg. 182-183)

    He summarizes, "Socrates was completely negative in his relation to the existent, that he hovered in ironic satisfaction above all the determinations of substantial life... His entire standpoint, therefore, culminates in infinite negativity, for it exhibits itself as negative both in relation to the past development and the subsequent development, though in another sense it is positive in both instances, that is to say, it is infinitely ambiguous. His whole life was a protest against the establishment, the substantial life of the state... So much for the historical conditions under which his irony expressed itself... [his irony] appeared partially as a mastered moment in discourse, and totally in its complete infinity whereby it finally swept away even Socrates himself." (Pg. 240)

    He observes, "But the outstanding feature of irony ... is the subjective freedom which at every moment has within its power the possibility of a beginning because the subject is still free, and this is the satisfaction the ironist longs for. At such moments actuality loses its validity for him; he is free and above it. This is something which the Roman Catholic Church understood in certain points, and on various occasions during the Middle Ages it used to elevate itself above its absolute reality and conceive of itself ironically, e.g., in the Feast of ... Fools, Easter Humour, etc." (Pg. 270)

    He explains, "We shall begin with what I have ventured to call executive irony. Insofar as irony asserts a relation of opposition in all its various nuances, it might seem that irony were identical with dissembling... But whereas dissemblance describes more the objective act by which the disparity between essence and phenomenon is effected, irony is also descriptive of a subjective satisfaction, for it is by means of irony that the subject emancipates himself from the constraint imposed upon him by the continuity of life, whence it may be said of the ironist that he `cuts loose.' ... Irony... has no purpose, its purpose is immanent in itself, a metaphysical purpose. The purpose is none other than irony itself... His actual purpose... is merely to feel free, and this he is through irony." (Pg. 272-273)

    He notes, "Boredom is the only continuity the ironist has. Yes, boredom: this eternity void of content, this bliss without enjoyment, this superficial profundity, this hungry satiety. But boredom is the negative unity in which opposites disappear... It is evident from this how irony remains thoroughly negative: in a theoretical dimension it establishes a disparity between Idea and actuality, actuality and Idea; and in a practical dimension between possibility and actuality, actuality and possibility." (Pg. 302)

    He points out, "Pantheism may occur in two ways: either by accentuating man or by accentuating God, either through anthropocentric or theocentric reflection. If I allow humanity to produce God, there is no conflict between God and man; if I allow man to disappear in God, there is again no conflict." (Pg. 327)

    He concludes, "In our day there is much talk about the significance of doubt for philosophy, but doubt is for philosophy what irony is for the personal life. As philosophers claim that no true philosophy is possible without doubt, so by the same token one may claim that no authentic human life is possible without irony... In our age philosophy has come into possession of such an enormous result that all can scarcely be right with it. Insights not only into man's secrets but into God's secrets are sold at such a bargain that it all begins to look rather suspicious. In our joy over the result we have forgotten that a result has no value if I has not actually been acquired. But woe to him who cannot tolerate the fact that irony seeks to balance the accounts! Irony is like the negative way, not the truth but the way... insofar as there can be any question of the `eternal validity' of irony, this can only find its answer through an investigation of the sphere of humor... humor also contains a much deeper positivity than irony, for it does not move itself in humanistic determinations but in the anthropic determinations; it does not find repose in making man human, but in making man God-Man." (Pg. 340-342)

    This very early work of Kierkegaard will be of interest to persons seriously studying the development of his philosophy.

  • SOREN AABYE KIERKEGAARD (1813-1855) "stepped" into history as the master in managing the weapon of irony. As a young student he was fascinated by SOCRATES and the German romantic thinkers and writers. This is one of the 4 most important works of him. Some Kierkegaard lovers even call it his magnus opum. In fact this rather early work (1841) is a dissertation which in particular addresses Socratic irony (and the German romantics). The irony was to him a protest against bourgeoisie and a strong weapon against the speculative philosophy from René DESCARTES (1596-1650) - Kierkegaard was the first person to demask the lie of Descartes, i.e. his 'cogito ergo sum', "I think therefore I am" - up until Wilhelm Friedrich HEGEL (1770-1831). In short: against the "MODERNS" as he named them, even before Nietzsche!

    THE CONCEPT OF IRONY got quite scant reviews when it was published. This GENIAL WORK of the godfather of existentialism is divided in two parts. The first deals with Socratic irony (as exhibited by Plato, Aristophanes, Xenophon). The main considerings here are about Plato's Socrates as he appears in "The Symposium, The Protagoras, The Phaedo, The Apology and The Republic". He ever goes on focussing deeper on SOCRATES's RECOUNT OF THE ORACLE OF DELPHI, that said he was the wisest man amongst all, which the Greek wizard understood as he was the wisest because of HIS AWARENESS OF HIS IGNORANCE (while the others were not). Hegel on the contrary didn't see any irony in this: he just took this insight of Socrates at face value.

    THE SECOND PART deals with German romantism, which Kierkegaard qualified as "PATHETIC NEGATIVISM", mainly because of the excavation, the depreciation of the "consciousness of values". As to him IRONY CAN ONLY SAVE MAN AS SELF-CONTROLLED, RESTRAINED IRONY. This opinion still is VERY ACTUAL these days, especially where the themes of CONTINGENCY and IRONY are back AND in front of the agenda of POSTMODERN PHILOSOPHY.

    FINALLY, Sören KIERKEGAARD is appreciated, valued again as he should: he still belongs to the 20, if not 10, most important philosophers ever. Very true, right and correct is it that some years ago he was given the eloquent nickname of "THE SOCRATES OF COPENHAGEN". THIS WORK OF HIM IS OF COURSE A MUST FOR PHILOSOPHERS, PHILOLOGISTS, SCIENTISTS AND ... for those who want to know more about the phenomenon of irony. AN ABSOLUTE MASTERPIECE IN THE HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY, VERY WARMLY AND STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.

    NOTE: This work was originally (thus correctly) named: "The Concept of Irony with CONTINUAL References to Socrates" and was written in Danish, instead of Latin.