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ePub Mars: The Living Planet download

by Barry E. DiGregorio

ePub Mars: The Living Planet download
Barry E. DiGregorio
Frog Books (July 23, 1997)
Occult & Paranormal
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Mars The Living Planet laid out in detail the behind the scenes workings of being an astrobiologist within the NASA Mars Exploration program and some of what was reported is disturbing. While writing the book it became apparent to me that at the conclusion of the Viking Mission to Mars that NASA had put Levin and his life detection data on a shelf and they were not to be mentioned again. In The Microbes of Mars – A 2011 Addendum to Mars The Living Planet the reasons for NASA ignoring the Viking Labeled Release evidence are explored. To read this book, upload an EPUB or FB2 file to Bookmate.

Barry Elliott DiGregorio, American science and aerospace writer. Member Amherst Museum Aviation Hall of Fame Nominatin and advisory committee, 1994-1995, chairman coordinator 1995 Aviation Hall of Fame Induction Dinner. With, Memorial Medical Center, Niagara Falls, New York, 1974-1977; principal, Crystal Window Cleaning Company, Niagara Falls, 1978-1987; booking agent, principal, Barry E. Digregorio & Associations, Middleport, New York, since 1993; booking agent, American Flying Belt, In. Houston, since 1994; professional magazine writer, since 1988.

by. Barry DiGregorio. Books for People with Print Disabilities. Internet Archive Books. Uploaded by Lotu Tii on March 13, 2012. Life on other planets. inlibrary; printdisabled; ; china. SIMILAR ITEMS (based on metadata). Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014).

Mars: The Living Planet. DiGregorio BE, Levin GV, Straat PA (1997). Mars: The Living Planet. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-883319-58-8. Ezell LN, Ezell EC (1984). Stenger R (2000-11-07).

A miniaturized marvel of engineering aspires to rewrite the textbooks about life on the Red Planet.

Mn-Fe-Enhancing Budding Bacteria in Century-Old Rock Varnish, Erie Barge Canal, New York. David h. Krinsley, Barry E. Digregorio, Ronald I. Dorn, Josh Razink, Robert Fisher. A miniaturized marvel of engineering aspires to rewrite the textbooks about life on the Red Planet. The paper discusses the Beagle 2 mission to Mars. Mention is made of the instrumentation togethe. More).

This book is an update of Barry diGregorio's early seminal book "Mars the Living Planet"

Why the NASA Mars Exploration division shuns this evidence is explored by Levin and Straat in their new chapters. This book is an update of Barry diGregorio's early seminal book "Mars the Living Planet". It consists essentially of opinions by outstanding scientists in the field of Astrobiology on the current status of the debate on whether or not Life currently exists near or on the surface of Mars or elsewhere in the cosmos and whether or not Gil Levin's Viking LR experiments did indeed find life on Mars in 1976.

It was in this book (published on 07/23/97) that Dr. Gilbert V. Levin first announced his conclusion that his 1976 Viking Labeled Release (LR) life detection experiment flown on NASA's Viking mission to Mars found living microorganisms in the soil. Shortly afterward Levin presented his results in a scientific paper to the Annual Meeting of the International Society for Optical Engineering in San Diego.Mars the Living Planet opens with the telling of how curious people became interested in the planet Mars as a world which might harbor some form of life. The book also traces the history of how the science of astronomy and microbiology eventually merged to become the new science known as astrobiology (first called exobiology in the 1960's). The story quickly moves forward to tell the real life story of astrobiologist Dr. Gilbert V. Levin. Levin was the second astrobiologist hand selected by NASA's first Administrator Keith Glennan in 1959 to develop a microbial detection instrument that could look for traces of life on Mars. Levin then went on to work as an scientific investigator on NASA's Mariner 9 Orbiter mission and later with Viking - the first spacecraft ever sent to look for life on another planet. Mars The living Planet details the exciting events that unfolded during the Viking program from the pre-mission testing and on the surface of Mars. Recently a new scientific paper was published in the Journal of Geophysical Research with the title "Reanalysis of the Viking results suggests perchlorate and organics at mid-latitudes on Mars" by Rafael Navarro-González and a number of co-authors demonstrates that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) used to invalidate Levin's biology results might have actually found a surprisingly significant amount of organic material in Martian soil at both the Viking 1 and Viking 2 landing sites on Mars. This now reopens the door to the results obtained by Levin's Viking Labeled Release experiments on Mars - a door that has been largely closed for 34 years due to the misinterpretation of the Viking GCMS.  A number of newspapers broke the story September 3rd 2010 about the Navarro-González findings including the New York Times and Washington Post. Mars The Living Planet - now available on KINDLE.
  • As a life member of the Mars society and an amateur astronomer of 40 years I've read dozens of Mars books, and papers on the pros and cons of life on Mars.

    Barry E. Digregorio ( wrote 90% of the book), a chapter by Dr Gilbert V. Levin, and a chapter by 10 year helper Dr. Patricia Ann Straat have wrote a great book. The book reads well and is not bogged down with too much technical PHD terms.OK for the average layman and scientists to read.

    I'm not saying the opinions and "facts" documented by the group are gospel but the book certainly opened my mind to the possibilities that life MAY have been found on Mars via the 2 Viking landings and "evidence" given by the Mars meteor ALH 84001 and another younger one found in Antarctica.

    "Evidence" is given of the results of Dr Levin's LR data. Charts show there was indeed arising of the very slightly radioactive tracer gas that may have come from life processes but then a dropping off as more nutrient was was added. Did the gas go back into the soil? Organisms killed because of excess? Also there was a number of times it was not clear if they actually got a sample into the chamber for testing as there was glitches.

    What I was impressed was the way Barry E. Digregorio systematically laid out a very good case for life on Mars but INMO there was NOT a definite answer either no life or life.

    Also there is a good history about the "wolf trap" and Dr.Wolf Vishniac not being able to get his experiment on Viking after years of work with NASA and then having to go to Antarctica to try to prove the capabilities of the "Wolf trap" against a supposedly sterile Antarctic environment (NOT). Sadly Dr. Vishniac perished falling down a thousand foot gorge.

    Also references to many other scientists including Carl Sagan. Also other Mars flights are shown and there results and disappointment failures. Much is said about possible underground water on Mars and fog and frost to sustain life. Also UV radiation and radiation from soil elements on Mars as it would effect life is mention as well as the low Mars atmospheric pressure and high CO2 content.

    Also lots of controversy on the color of Mars sky. Why was it blue in the original image and why did the NASA administer force a technician to make it more red? Also it seems to me there was some blue green color on the rocks? Life? Was NASA trying to hide something to allow a future take home sample of Martian soil? Adjustment so the US flag on Viking was red and not purple? It was shown as dust particles settle down from the Martian atmosphere the sky color goes from slightly red, to salmon, to blue to purple. Again why did NASA fool around with the color and not leave it alone. Original image looked like Arizona sky and brownish rock to me...not red, and there was some blue green tint to some of the rocks. A diode color controlled system. INMO not the best but probably they best NASA could do at the time.

    Much "evidence" and deep concern is written about the possible contamination of Mars without expensive sterilization methods and the Russians may have crashed non sterilized spacecraft into Mars already. The greater potential importance of not allowing a possible deadly organism from Mars to be brought back on Earth is shown and that testing should be on Mars, the Moon or the ISS. Unnecessary worry of an "Andromeda Strain" ? I don't know but INMO some precautions should be taken.

    Also lots of information of oxidizers in the Martian soil and the search for hydrogen peroxide. Also shown was Digregorio's failed quest to have the Hubble telescope search for hydrogen peroxide in the Martian atmosphere.

    I'm not saying I agree 100% with any of this but it does open ones mind to the possibilities and that life MAY have been found and NASA may have had an alternate reason to publicly say life was not found. If you are interested in the possibility of life on Mars you one it to yourself to try this book. Hear the other story and pros and cons about the possibility of Martian life. 5 stars

  • A great book with vivid color photos showing an earthlike, though parched and frozen wasteland. Book is a cautionary tale of how politics interfere with science as managers put defence of their fiefdoms, budgets and favored hypotheses ahead of honest scientific inquiry.

  • I consider this Must reading for everybody who has any interest in NASA's Mars exploration. A much needed historical review of what has been done as well as what is yet to be done. Focused on the Viking Missions with the state of science before and after.

  • In this book DiGregorio admirably discusses evidence for the conclusion that the Viking missions did in fact discover life on Mars. This is the view of Drs. Gilbert Levin and Patricia Ann Straat, who developed one of the instruments, the Labeled Release experiment, that flew on Viking. The book presents very exciting up to date information on exotic organisms, extremophiles, that might be found on other planets. NASA itself is investigating such possibilities with its Astrobiology program. Finally, the book argues that since some experiments on Viking gave very definite life signs, missions such as Mars Sample Return should not be undertaken until the issue is resolved conclusively.
    For the last twenty years, Dr. Levin has consistently argued that no non-biological explanation faithfully reproduces the results seen in his experiment. Dr. Levin has shown great insight in regards to the life on Mars issue. As discussed in DiGregorio's book, he suggested to the imaging team that there were other colors on Mars than just dull browns and reds. This was verified by members of the Viking imaging team who confirmed there were blue and green patches on rocks that changed seasonally. Levin argued that the dry conditions and (apparent) low organic content in the Mars soil did not preclude the existence of life. Since the Viking missions, it has been confirmed that certain organisms can live within igneous rock surving on non-organic chemicals for nutrients and on water that trickles through cracks in the rock. Levin argued in a paper on liquid water on Mars that a widely cited paper concluding that liquid water could not exist on the Martian surface was based on a faulty assumption that water vapor was evenly distributed through the Martian atmospheric column. The Pathfinder mission confirmed that water vapor was restricted to the bottom 1 to 3km above the Martian surface.
    Another factor that Digregorio discusses in his book is the evidence that there may be active volcanism on Mars. This is important to the life issue since this indicates heat and or hydrothemal systems on the Martian surface. And the National Science Foundation's report on the Mars Sample Return mission admits that such would increase the chance for life on Mars. Recently from Mars Global Surveyor images it has been concluded that Mars lava flows could be as young as 200 thousand years, which would make it virtually certain that volcanism continues today.
    In reading over the history of the controversy over the conflicting results from the Vking missions, it occurs to me there is a basic flaw in subsequent investigations to resolve the issue. They all assume there was something wrong with Levin's Labeled Release experiment and the GCMS, which indicated no organics on Mars, was right. DiGregorio discusses the fact that it was first believed there was a problem in the LRx when it gave positive responses. But the engineering team confirmed it was operating properly. In contrast, there was one important factor with the GCMS that was definitely wrong, and two others that possibly were "wrong". As DiGregorio mentions, the Viking GCMS NEVER GOT AN INDICATION THAT SAMPLES WERE ACTUALLY DELIVERED TO THE CHAMBER. This indicates that either there was a flaw in the mechanism detecting sample delivery or the GCMS never got a large enough sample to register. If the second is true then that has clear implications for its failure to detect organics on Mars. Two other failings of the Viking GCMS is that it could be "poisoned" by soil with high sulfur content, known to be true of Mars, and the fact that it could not detect the organic equivalent of fewer than a million cells per gram.
    Given these facts you would think that at least some research would have gone into showing how the GCMS could have given a wrong result. Yet all the research (other than Levin's) went to showing why the LRx was wrong. Why? Scientists are a conservative bunch. Rather than making the truly revolutionary claim that life had been discovered on Mars, they simply preferred to make the safe assumption that the instruments indicating life present were flawed. However, the history of science shows that great discoveries are made when scientists with insight go beyond the safe assumptions, and view the evidence dispassionately and go wherever it leads. What should have given scientists pause is the fact that the conclusion that the GCMS was right and the LRx wrong was based not on scientific factors but solely on the assumption that that is the way things should be.
    So how can we determine whether it was the LRx or the GCMS that was flawed? A recent paper by Yen, Murray, and Rossman may give a clue: Water content of the Martian soil: Laboratory simulations of reflectance spectra Authors: YEN, A. S.; MURRAY, B. C.; ROSSMAN, G. R. Journal: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 103, No. E5, p. 11,125 (1998).
    This paper shows there is a discepancy between the water content of the Martian soil as determined by the GCMS and determined by all other Earth-based and orbiter observations, perhaps by a factor of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. The upcoming Mars Polar Lander due to land on Mars in December will test the water content of the Martian soil. If it confirms the high water content of all the observations other than the GCMS, then that would indicate a gross error in the GCMS water analysis and by extension in the organic analysis as well.
    Bob Clark

  • Barry DiGregorio's new book about the discovery of microbial life on the surface of Mars only has re-inforced what I have suspected all along --that if NASA ever did find life on the other planets they would contain the information to themselves fearing funding cuts by those that would protest "the truth about nature" because it interfers with their religious cosmologies. Former NASA scientist Gilbert Levin presents a good argument (Levin guest writes chapter 9) and gives readers an inside look at what it is like to work as a NASA exobiologist and the political obstacles he has had to endure. All in all, Mars The Living Planet is one of the best books on Mars I have ever read (and I have read most of them) and highly recomended it to anyone that is curious about how NASA conducts its research in this area. Though the search for life is one of NASA's top three stated goals for Mars, DiGregorio points out that no microbiologists are being included on any of the NASA science teams and that biological testing experiments are being rejected by the agency. --John Miller, Amherst, N